Epididymitis: symptoms and cause inflammation of epididymis

Epididymitis or epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis is located at the back of the testicle. The epididymis plays a role in the maturation and storage of sperm cells. Men of all ages can develop epididymitis. Epididymitis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, including sexually transmitted infections (STDs), such as gonorrhea or chlamydia. Sometimes your testicle also becomes inflamed, a condition called epididymo-orchitis. Symptoms of epididymitis may include a swollen, red, or warm scrotum; testicle pain and tenderness, usually on one side, which usually comes on gradually; painful urination or an urgent or frequent need to urinate; discharge from the penis; pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen or pelvis; blood in the semen; (sometimes) fever. Treatment of epididymitis depends on the underlying cause. With proper and timely treatment, the prognosis is often favorable.

  • What is epididymitis?
  • Who gets epididymitis?
  • How long does it take?
  • Acute epididymitis
  • Chronic epididymitis
  • Symptoms of epididymitis
  • Complications
  • Causes of inflammation of the epididymis
  • Who is at risk for epididymitis?
  • Epididymitis in children
  • Causes
  • Symptoms
  • Therapy
  • Examination and diagnosis
  • Treatment of epididymitis
  • Medication and bed rest
  • Additional treatment
  • Recovery
  • Operation
  • Prognosis
  • Prevention

 

  1. urinary bladder, 2. pubic bone, 3. penis, 4. erectile tissue, 5. glans, 6. foreskin, 7. urethra, 8. large intestine, 9. rectum, 10. seminal bladder, 11. vas deferens, 12. prostate, 13 Cowper’s gland, 14. anus, 15. vas deferens, 16. epididymis, 17. testicle, 18. scrotum / Source: Elf Sternberg, Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA-3.0)” onclick=”openImage(this);”> Anatomy of the male genital organs:1. urinary bladder, 2. pubic bone, 3. penis, 4. erectile tissue, 5. glans, 6. foreskin, 7. urethra, 8. large intestine, 9. rectum, 10. testicle, 11 . vas deferens, 12. prostate, 13. Cowper’s gland, 14. anus, 15. vas deferens, 16. epididymis, 17. testicle, 18. scrotum / Source: Elf Sternberg, Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA-3.0)

What is epididymitis?

Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis. The epididymis or epididymis is located in the scrotum, behind the testes or testes. Sperm cells are made in the testes. The epididymis have a function in the maturation and storage of sperm cells. When the epididymis becomes swollen, it can cause pain and swelling in the testicles.

Who gets epididymitis?

Epididymitis can affect boys and men of all ages, but is most common in boys and men between the ages of 14 and 35. An epididymitis is usually caused by a bacterial infection or a sexually transmitted infection (STD). The condition is often treated with antibiotics.

How long does it take?

A distinction is made between acute and chronic epididymitis.

Acute epididymitis

Acute epididymitis lasts six weeks or less. In most cases of acute epididymitis, the testicles are also inflamed (testicular inflammation). This condition is called epididymo-orchitis. It can be difficult to determine whether the testicle, epididymis, or both are inflamed. That is why the term epididymo-orchitis is often used. Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common causes in men aged 35 or younger.

Chronic epididymitis

Chronic epididymitis lasts six weeks or longer. Symptoms include discomfort or pain in the scrotum, epididymis or testicles. This can be caused by granulomatous reactions, which can result in cysts or calcifications.

Symptoms of epididymitis

Epididymitis can start with just a few mild symptoms. If left untreated, the symptoms can worsen. An epididymitis can cause the following symptoms:

  • mild fever
  • cold shivers
  • pain in the pelvic area (pelvic pain)
  • pressing sensation in the testicles or testicles
  • tenderness and pain in the testicles
  • redness and warmth in the scrotum
  • enlarged lymph nodes in the groin
  • pain during intercourse and ejaculation
  • pain during urination or pain during bowel movements
  • urgent and frequent urination
  • abnormal penile discharge
  • blood in the semen

 

Complications

Complications of epididymitis can include:

  • pus-filled infection (abscess) in the scrotum
  • epididymo-orchitis, if the condition spreads from the epididymis to your testicle
  • (rarely) reduced fertility

 

Causes of inflammation of the epididymis

Causes of epididymitis include:

  • STDs . Gonorrhea and chlamydia are the most common causes of epididymitis in young, sexually active men.
  • Other infections . Bacteria from a urinary tract infection or prostate infection can spread from the site of inflammation to the epididymis. Viral infections, such as the mumps virus, can also cause epididymitis.
  • Urine at the epididymis . This condition occurs when urine flows backward into the epididymis, possibly due to heavy lifting or straining.
  • Trauma . A groin injury can cause epididymitis.
  • Tuberculosis (TB) . Sometimes epididymitis is caused by a tuberculosis infection.

 

Who is at risk for epididymitis?

The most common cause of epididymitis is an STD, especially gonorrhea and chlamydia. However, epididymitis can also be caused by a non-sexually transmitted infection, such as a urinary tract infection or prostate infection. You have an increased risk of epididymitis if you:

  • you are not circumcised
  • have unprotected sex
  • have structural problems in the urinary tract
  • have tuberculosis (TB).
  • an enlarged prostate as a result of which the prostate pushes the urethra closed and the bladder cannot be emptied properly
  • have recently had urinary tract surgery
  • have recently experienced a groin injury
  • using a urinary catheter
  • heart medication called amiodarone (a medicine to treat heart rhythm disorders).

 

Epididymitis in children

Causes

Children can get epididymitis just like adults, although in children it often has a different cause. Common causes of epididymitis in children include:

  • direct trauma
  • urinary tract infections that spread to the urethra and epididymis
  • reflux of urine into the epididymis
  • turning of the epididymis

 

Symptoms

Symptoms of epididymitis in children include:

  • discharge from the urethra
  • feeling of discomfort in the pelvis or lower abdomen (lower abdominal pain)
  • pain or burning sensation during urination
  • redness or tenderness of the scrotum
  • fever

 

Therapy

The treatment of epididymitis in children will depend on the underlying cause of the condition. In many cases, the condition can resolve on its own with rest and painkillers such as ibuprofen. Antibiotics may be prescribed for a bacterial infection, such as a urinary tract infection. Children are also advised not to hold their urine for too long, not to sit on the toilet bowl for too long and to drink more water.Urinalysis / Source: Angellodeco/Shutterstock

Examination and diagnosis

The doctor will first perform a physical examination. He or she will look for swelling of the testicles, swelling of the lymph nodes in the groin area, and abnormal discharge from the penis. If there is any discharge, the doctor will use a cotton swab to collect a sample to test for STDs. Your doctor may also perform the following tests and procedures:

  • rectal examination, which can show whether an enlarged prostate is causing the condition
  • blood tests, such as a complete blood count, to determine whether an infection is present
  • urine test, which can indicate whether you have a urinary tract infection or an STD
  • Imaging studies may be performed to rule out other conditions

 

Treatment of epididymitis

Medication and bed rest

Treatment of epididymitis primarily focuses on the underlying cause and also on relieving the symptoms. Treatment may consist of:

  • antibiotics, which are administered for 4 to 6 weeks in chronic epididymitis
  • pain medication, which may be available without a prescription (ibuprofen) or require a prescription (codeine or morphine)
  • prescription anti-inflammatory medications
  • bed rest

 

Additional treatment

Additional treatments may include:

  • raising the scrotum, for at least two days
  • Apply cold compresses to the scrotum if you experience a lot of pain
  • wearing a jockstrap, which are very suitable straps to support the scrotum
  • avoid lifting heavy objects
  • In the case of an STD, you and your partner should abstain from sexual intercourse until you have completed the course of antibiotics and are completely healed

 

Recovery

It can sometimes take several weeks before the pain or discomfort goes away completely. Most cases of epididymitis resolve within 3 months. However, in some cases, more invasive treatment may be necessary.

Operation

In case of an abscess, the doctor can drain the pus with a needle or with surgery. If the above treatments do not provide sufficient relief, it may be necessary to remove the epididymis or part of it. Surgery may also be necessary to repair any physical defects that may be causing epididymitis.Drink enough fluids every day / Source: Mimagephotography/Shutterstock.com

Prognosis

Most cases of acute epididymitis are successfully treated with antibiotics. There are usually no long-term sexual or reproductive problems. But epididymitis can sometimes return. It is also possible for complications to occur, but this is rare.

Prevention

Prevent an STD through safe sex. You can prevent a urinary tract infection by urinating regularly to flush the bacteria out of the body, going to the toilet immediately when urgent, urinating completely empty your bladder, wiping from front to back after defecating, and wiping the bladder immediately after sexual contact. good empty urination. It is also wise to drink enough water every day.

read more

  • Epididymitis and testicle inflammation: symptoms and causes
  • Testicular inflammation: symptoms, cause and treatment
  • Swollen scrotum: causes swelling of scrotum or scrotum
  • Testicle pain: nagging pain on the left or right testicle
  • Prostate pain and prostate complaints: prostate (pain) complaints

Related Posts